Pearl: Bibliography

This is a “Warts and All” bibliography and has not been maintained since 1998. Many thanks to Marley Washum for her work on this list. Call numbers for resources in the University of Central Arkansas’s Torreyson Library are noted where relevant—a vestige of the bibliography’s origin as a teaching tool. Like the rest of the information here, location information may now be out of date.

Aaron, Martha Susan. “Comic Strategy and Meaning in Pearl: Allegory, Ingenium, Compunction, and the Two Steps of Humility.” Diss. U of Chicago, 1992. DAI 52 (1992): 2918A.

Ackerman, R. W. “The Pearl Maiden and the Penny.” Romance Philology 18 (1964).

Aers, David. “The Self Mourning: Reflections on Pearl.” Speculum 68.1 (1993): 54-73.

Anderson, Earl R. “Pearl 755: Ostryis ‘Chamber’.” English Language Notes 32.1 (1994): 10-13.

Andrew, Malcolm. The Gawain-Poet: An Annotated Bibliography, 1839-1977. New York: Garland, 1979. Ref. Z2014. P7 A55

Andrew, Malcolm. “Pearl, Line 161.” Explicator 40.1 (1981): 4-5.

Arthur, Ross G. “The Pearl-Poet as Master of Logic.” English Studies in Canada 15.2 (1989): 123-33.

Baker, Denise N. “Dialectic Form in Pearl and Piers Plowman.” Viator 15 (1984): 263-73.

Baldwin, A. P. “The Tripartite Reformation of the Soul in The Scale of Perfection, Pearl, and Piers Plowman (Papers Read at Dartington Hall, July 1984).” Medieval Mystical Tradition in England. Ed. Marion Glasscoe. Cambridge: Brewer, 1984. 136-49.

Barron, W. J. “Luf-daungere.” Mediaeval Miscellany Presented to Eugene Vinaver. Manchester, 1965.

Bauer, Kate A. “The Portrayal of Partents and Children in the Works of Chaucer, Gower, and The Pearl-Poet.” Diss. NYU, 1995. DAI 56 (1996): 3949 A.

Bhattacharji, Santha. “Pearl and the Liturgical ‘Common of Virigins.’ Medium Ævum 64.1 (1995): 37-50.

Bishop, Ian. Pearl in Its Setting. Oxford, 1968.

Bishop, Ian. “Relatives at the Court of Heaven: Contrasted Treatments of an Idea in Piers Plowman and Pearl (Studies in Honour of Basil Cottle).” Medieval Literature And Antiquities. Ed. Myra Stokes and T. L. Burton. Cambridge, England: Brewer, 1987. 111-18.

Bishop, Ian. “The Significance of the Garlande Gay in the Allegory of the Pearl.” RES n.s. 8 (1957).

Bitot, Michel, Roberta Mullini, and Peter Happe, eds. ‘Divers Toyes Mengled’: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Culture/ Etudes sur la Culture Europeenne au Moyen Age et a la Renaissance. Tours: U François Rabelais, 1996.

Blanch, R. J. “The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight edited by Malcolm Andrew and Ronald Waldron.” Archiv fur das Studium der Neuerensprachen und Literaturen 220.1 (1983): 151-54.

Blanch, R. J. “Precious Metal and Gem Symbolism in Pearl.” Lock Haven rev. 7 (1965).

Blanch, R. J., ed. Sir Gawain and Pearl: Critical Essays. Bloomington, 1966.

Blanch, Robert J., and Julian N. Wasserman. From Pearl to Gawain: Forme to Fynisment. Gainesville, FL: UP of Florida, 1995.

Blanch, R. J., Julian N. Wasserman, and Miriam Youngerman Miller, eds.. Text and Matter: New Critical Perspectives of the Pearl-Poet. Troy, NY: Whitston, 1991. PR2111.T49 1991

Blenkner, L. “The Pattern of Traditional Images in Pearl.” SP 68 (1971).

Blenkner, L. “The Theological Structure of Pearl.” Traditio 24 (1968).

Bock, Karen R. “Ex Vi Transiciones: The Representation of God in Fourteenth-Century English Poetry.” DAI 50 (1990): 2493A.

Bone, G. “A Note on Pearl and the Buke of the Howlat [140].” Medium Ævum 6 (1937).

Borroff, Marie. Pearl: A New Verse Translation. New York: Norton, 1977. PR2111.A214 1977

Borroff, Marie. “Pearl’s ‘Maynful Mone’: Crux, Simile, and Structure.” Acts of Interpretation: The Text in its Contexts, 700-1600: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature in Honor of E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Mary J. Caruthers and Elizabeth D. Kirk. Norman, OK: Pilgrim, 1982. 159-72.

Bowers, John M. “Pearl in its Royal Setting: Ricardian Poetry Revisited.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer: The Yearbook of the New Chaucer Society 17 (1995): 111-55.

Bowers, John M. “The Politics of Pearl.” Exemplaria 7.2 (1995): 419-41.

Breeze, Andrew. “A Celtic Etymology for Glaverez ‘Deceives’ at Pearl 688.” Notes & Queries 42 (1995): 160-62.

Brown, C. “The Author of Pearl.” PMLA 19 (1904).

Brown, C. “The Author of the Pearl Considered in the Light of his Theological Opinions.” PMLA 19 (1904).

Bullington, Mary Boxley. “The Gall of Prophets: Scriptural Rumination, Memorial Burlesque, and the Apocalyptic in ‘Patience’ and ‘Cleanness’.” Diss. Indiana U., 1993. DAI 54 (1994): 4085A.

Bullon-Fernandez, Maria. “‘Byyonde the Water’: Courtly and Religious Desire in Pearl.” Studies in Philology 91.1 (1994): 35-49.

Cargill, O. and M. Schlauch. “The Pearl and Its Jeweler.” PMLA 43 (1928).

Carlson, David. “Pearl’s Imperfections.” Studia Neophilologica 63.1 (1991): 57-67.

Carlson, David. “The Pearl-Poet’s Olympia.” Manuscripta 31.3 (1987): 181-89.

Carlson, Paula Jean. “The Grammar of God: Grammatical Metaphor in Piers Plowman and Pearl.DAI 44 (1984): 2467A.

Carson, A. “Aspects of Elegy in the Middle English Pearl.” SP 62 (1965).

Caruthers, Mary J., and Elizabeth D. Kirk, eds. Acts of Interpretation: The Text in its Contexts, 700-1600: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature in Honor of E. Talbot Donaldson. Norman, OK: Pilgrim, 1982.

Cawley, A. C. and J. J. Anderson., eds. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, Cleanness, Patience. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1976.

Champion, Margret G. “Reception Theory and Medieval Narrative: Reading Pearl as a Novel.” Neophilologus 76.4 (1992): 629-37.

Chance, Jane. “Allegory and Structure in Pearl: The Four Senses of the Ars Praedicandi and Fourteenth-Century Homiletic Poetry.” Text and Matter: New Critical Perspectives of the Pearl-Poet. Ed. Robert J. Blanch, Julian N. Wasserman, and Miriam Youngerman Miller. Troy, NY: Whitson, 1991. 31-60. PR2111. T49 1991

Chapman, C. O. An Index of Names in Pearl, Purity, Patience and Gawain. Ithaca, 1951.

Chapman, C. O. “The Authorship of the Pearl.PMLA 47 (1932).

Chapman, C. O. “The Musical Training of the Pearl-Poet.” PMLA 46 (1931).

Chapman, C. O. “Numerical Symbolism in Dante and the Pearl.” MLN 54 (1939).

Clopper, Lawrence M. “Pearl the Consolation of Scripture.” Viator 23 (1992): 231-45.

Conley, John, ed. The Middle English Pearl: Critical Essays. Notre Dame, IN: U of Notre Dame P, 1970. PR2111.C6

Conley, John. “Pearl and a Lost Tradition.” JEGP 54 (1955).

Coulton, G. G. “In Defence of the Pearl.” MLR 2 (1906).

Cox, Catherine Stallworth. “Mirroring Language: Narcissus in Late Middle English Poetry.” Diss. U of Florida, 1992. DAI 52 (1992): 2930A.

Davenport, W. A. The Art of the Gawain-Poet. London: Athlone, 1978. PR1972. G353 D3

Davis, N. “A Note on Pearl [1208].” RES n.s. 17-18 (1966-7).

Day, M. “The Weak Verb in the Works of the Gawain Poet.” MLR 14 (1919).

Day, M. “Two Notes on Pearl [140, 210].” Medium Ævum 3 (1934).

Derolez, R. “Authorship and Statistics: The Case of the Pearl-Poet and the Gawain-Poet.” Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language-Learning 8 (1981): 41-51.

Donner, Morton. “A Grammatical Perspective on Word Play in Pearl.” The Chaucer Review 22.4 (1988): 322-31.

Donner, Morton. “Word Play and Word Form in Pearl.” The Chaucer Review 24.2 (1989): 166-82.

Elliott, R. W. V. “Pearl and the Mediaeval Garden: Convention or Originality?” Langues Modernes 45 (1951).

Emerson, O. F. “Imperfect Lines in Pearl and the Rimed Parts of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.” MP 19 (1922).

Emerson, O. F. “More Notes on the Pearl.” PMLA 42 (1927).

Emerson, O. F. “Some Notes on the Pearl.” PMLA 37 (1922).

Everett, Dorothy. Essays on Middle English Literature. Ed. Patricia Keen. 1959. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978. Includes her essay “Patience, Purity, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.” PR255 .E9 1978

Everett, D., and N. D. Hurnand. “Legal Phraseology in a Passage in Pearl [679-708].” Medium Ævum 16 (1947).

Fast, Frances. “Poet and Dreamer in Pearl: ‘Hys Ryche to Wynne’.” English Studies in Canada 18.4 (1992): 371-82.

Field, Rosalind. “The Heavenly Jerusalem in Pearl.” The Modern Language Review 81.1 (1986): 7-17.

Finch, Casey, trans., and Malcolm Andrew et al., eds. The Complete Works of the Pearl Poet. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. PR1972.G35 A345 1993

Finlayson, John. “Pearl, Petrarch’s Trionfo della morte, and Boccaccio’s Olympia.” English Studies in Canada 9.1 (1983): 1-13.

Fisher, J. H. “Wyclif, Langland, Gower and the Pearl Poet on the Subject of Aristocracy.” Studies in Mediaeval Literature in Honor of A. C. Baugh. Philadelphia, 1961.

Fleming, John V. “The Centuple Structure of the Pearl.” The Alliterative Tradition in the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Bernard S. Levy and Paul E. Szarmach. Kent: Kent State UP, 1981. 81-98.

Fletcher, J. “The Allegory of the Pearl.” JEGP 20 (1921).

Fowler, David C. The Bible in Middle English Literature. Seattle: U of Washington P, 1984.

Fowler, David C. “On the Meaning of Pearl 139-40.” MLQ 21 (1960).

Fowler, David C. “Pearl 558: Waning.” MLN 74 (1959).

Gamaury, Martine. “Pearl, Lear, regards de peres.” ‘Divers Toyes Mengled’: Essays on Medieval And Renaissance Culture /Etudes sur la Culture Européenne au Moyen Age et a la Renaissance. Ed. Michel Bitot, Roberta Mullini, and Peter Happe. Tours: Université François Rabelais, 1996. 69-79.

Gardner, John. The Complete Works of the Gawain-Poet (A Modern English Version with a Critical Introduction by John Gardner). Chicago: Chicago UP, 1965. PR1203. G36

Garrett, R. M. The Pearl: An Interpretation. Seattle, 1918.

Glasscoe, Marion, ed. Medieval Mystical Tradition in England. Cambridge, Eng.: Brewer, 1984.

Glimour-Bryson, Anne, ed. Computer Applications to Medieval Studies. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Pubs., Wester Michigan U, 1984.

Ginsberg, Warren. “Place and Dialectic in Pearl and Dante’s Paradiso.” ELH 55.4 (1988): 731-53.

Gordon, E. V., and C. T. Onions. “Notes on the Text and Interpretation of Pearl.” Medium Ævum 1-2 (1932-3).

Greene, W. H. “The Pearl: A New Interpretation.” PMLA 40 (1925).

Gross, Charlotte. “Courtly Language in Pearl.” Text and Matter: New Critical Perspectives on The Pearl-Poet. Ed. Robert J. Blanch, Julian N. Wasserman, and Miriam Youngerman Miller. Troy, NY: Whitson, 1991. 79-92. PR2111. T49 1991

Hamilton, M. P. “The Meaning of the Middle English Pearl.” PMLA 70 (1955).

Hamilton, M. P. “The Orthodoxy of the Pearl 603-4.” MLN 58 (1943).

Hammerle, K. “The Castle of Perseverance and Pearl.” Anglia 50 (1936).

Hart, E. “Heaven of Virgines.” MLN 42 (1927).

Harwood, Britton J. “Pearl as Diptych.” Text and Matter: New Critical Perspectives of the Pearl-Poet. Ed. Robert J. Blanch, Julian N. Wasserman, and Miriam Youngerman Miller. Troy, NY: Whitson, 1991. 61-78. PR2111. T49 1991

Hawkins, Peter S., and Anne Howland Schotter, eds. Ineffability: Naming the Unnamable from Dante to Beckett. New York: AMS, 1984.

Heather, P. “Precious Stones in the Middle English Verse of the Fourteenth Century.” Folklore 42 (1931).

Heiserman, A. R. “The Plot of Pearl.” PMLA 80 (1965).

Hendrix, Howard V. “Reasonable Failure: Pearl Considered as a Self-Consuming Artifact of ‘Gostly Porpose’.” Neuphiolologische Mitteilungen 86.4 (1985): 458-66.

Hieatt, C. “Pearl and the Dream Vision Tradition.” Studia Neophilologica 37 (1965).

Hieatt, C. The Realism of Dream Vision: The Poetic Exploitation of the Dream Experience in Chaucer and His Contemporaries. Hague, 1967.

Hillman, Mary Vincent. “Pearl: Inlyche and Rewarde [603-4].” MLN 56 (1941).

Hillman, Mary Vincent. “Pearl: Lere leke [210].” MLN 59 (1944).

Hillman, Mary Vincent. “Pearl 382 Mare Rez Mysse?” MLN 68 (1953).

Hillman, Mary Vincent. The Pearl: Mediaeval Text with a Literal Translation and Interpretation. Convent Station, NJ: College of Saint Elizabeth P, 1961. PR2111.A25

Hillman, Mary Vincent. “The Pearl: West Ernays [3-7] and Fasor [432].” MLN 58 (1943).

Hillman, Mary Vincent. “Some Debatable Words in Pearl and its Theme [51-6, 1182-6, 1201-12].” MLN 60 (1945).

Hoffman, S. de V. “The Pearl: Notes for an Interpretation.” Modern Philology 58 (1961).

Holman, C. H. “Marerez Mysse in the Pearl [381-4]” MLN 66 (1951).

Horgan, A. D. “Justice in the Pearl.” Review of English Studies 32 (1981): 173-80.

Horrall, Sarah M. “Notes on British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.x.” Manuscripta 30.3 (1986): 191-98.

Hulbert, J. R. “The West Midlands of the Romances.” MP 19 (1922).

Hunter, Susan Marie. “Tales, Tellers, and Audiences: Narrative Structure and Aesthetic Response In Beowulf, Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.” DAI 45 (1984): 841A.

Ingledew, Francis John. “Jerusalem, Babylon, Camelot: The Concept of the Court in the Pearl-Poet.” DAI 51 (1991): 501A.

Iyeiri, Yoko. “The Periphrastic Use of Con Reconsidered: The Authorship of the Cotton Nero A.x. Poems.” Studia Neophilologica 68.1 (1996): 3-8.

Johnson, Lynn Staley. “The Pearl Dreamer and the Eleventh Hour.” Text and Matter: New Critical Perspectives of the Pearl-Poet. Ed. Robert J. Blanch., Julian N. Wasserman, and Miriam Youngerman Miller.Troy, NY: Whitson, 1991. 3-16. PR2111. T49 1991

Johnson, W. H. “The Imagery and Diction of the Pearl: Towards an Interpretation.” ELH 20 (1953).

Johnston, G.K. W. “Northern Idiom in Pearl.” Notes & Queries Oct. (1960).

Joyce, James. “Re-Weaving the Word-Web: Graph Theory and Rhymes.” Computer Applications To Medieval Studies. Ed. Anne Gilmour-Bryson. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Pubs., Western Michigan University, 1984. 117-34.

Kang, Ji soo. “Poetic Closure in the Works of the Gawain-Poet.” Diss. U of Washington, 1993. DAI 55 (1994): 274A.

Kaske, R. E. “Two Cruxes in Pearl: 596 and 601-10.” Traditio 15 (1959).

Kean, P. M. “Numerical Composition in Pearl.” Notes & Queries Feb. (1965).

Kean, P. M. The Pearl: An Interpretation. New York: Barnes & Nobles, 1967. PR211.K4 1967a

Knightley, W. J. “Pearl: The Hyz Seysoun.” MLN 76 (1961).

Kossick, S. G. “The Poetry of Purity, Patience, and Pearl.Unisa English Studies 19 (1981): 1-10.

Kottler, B. and A. M. Markman. A Concordance to Five Middle English Poems: Cleanness, St. Erkenwald, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Patience, Pearl. Pittsburgh, 1966.

Kowalik, Barbara. “Traces of Romance Textual Notes in the Non-Romance Work Ascribed to The Gawain-Poet.” From Medieval to Medievalism. Ed. John Simons. New York: St.Martin’s, 1992. 41-53.

Krieg, Laurence J. “Levels of Symbolic Meaning in Pearl.” Mythlore 5.2 (1978): 21-23.

Lawes, Rochie Whittington. “The Heaven of Fourteenth-Century English Poets: An Examination of the Paradisaical References in the English Works of Chaucer, Gower, Langland, and the Pearl-Poet.” DAI 45 (1984): 1111A.

Levy, Bernard S., and Paul E. Szarmach, eds. The Alliterative Tradition in the Fourteenth Century. Kent: Kent State UP, 1981. PR317 .A55 A45 1981

Lomperis, Linda, and Sarah Stanbury, eds. Feminist Approaches to the Body in Medieval Literature. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1993.

Luttrell, C. A. “The Mediaeval Tradition of the Pearl Virginity.” Medium Ævum 31 (1962).

Luttrell, C. A. “Pearl: Symbolism in a Garden Setting.” Neophilologus 49 (1965).

MacCracken, H. N. “Concerning Huchown.” PMLA 25 (1910).

Macrae-Gibson, O. D. “Pearl: The Link-Words and the Thematic Structure.” Neophilologus 52 (1968).

Madeleva, M. Pearl: A Study in Spiritual Dryness. New York: 1925.

Mahl, M. R. “The Pearl as the Church.” English Record 17 (1966).

Manes, Christopher. “A Plum for the Pearl-Poet.” English Language Notes 23.4 (1986): 4-6.

Manlove, C. N. Christian Fantasy: From 1200 to the Present. Notre Dame, IN: U of Notre Dame P, 1992. PR145.M36 1992

Mann, Jill. “Satisfaction and Payment in Middle English Literature.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer: The Yearbook of the New Chaucer Society 5 (1983): 17-48.

Manzalaoui, M. “Enlgish Analogues to the Liber Scalae.” Medium Ævum 34 (1965).

Markman, A. “A Computer Concordance to Middle English Texts.” SB 17 (1964).

Marti, Kevin. Body, Heart, and Text in the Pearl-Poet. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1991. PR1972.G353 M37 1991

Marti, Kevin. “Minor Mundus: The Figurative Use of the Body in Pearl.” DAI 48 (1988): 3107A.

Marti, Kevin. “Traditional Characteristics of the Resurrected Body in Pearl.” Viator 24 (1993): 311-35.

McColly, William and Dennis Weier. “Literary Attribution and Likelihood-Ratio Tests: The Case Of the Middle English Pearl-Poems.” Computers and the Humanities 17.2 (1983): 65-75.

McInerney, Maud Burnett. “Opening the Oyster: Pearls in Pearl.” Aestel 1 (1993): 19-54.

McIntosh, A. “Middle English upon schore and Some Related Matters.” Studies in Language and Literature in Honour of Margaret Schlauch. Warsaw, 1966.

McLaughlin, J. C. A Graphic-Phonemic Study of a Middle English Manuscript. Hague, 1963.

Milroy, J. “Pearl: The Verbal Texture and the Linguistic Theme.” Neophilologus 55 (1971).

Mitchell, B. Pearl 609-10.” Notes & Queries Feb. (1964).

Moorman, Charles. The Pearl-Poet. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1968. PR2111.M6

Moorman, Charles. “The Role of the Narrator in the Pearl.” Modern Philology 53 (1956).

Moorman, Charles. “Some Notes on Patience and the Pearl.” Southern Quarterly 4 (1965).

Morris, Richard. Early English Alliterative Poems in the West-Midland Dialect of the Fourteenth Century (Edited from the Unique Manuscript British Museum ms. Cotton Nero A.x.). EETS, OS no. 1. 2nd ed. London: Early English Text Society, 1965. PR1119 .A2 no. 1 1965

Morris, Richard, ed. The Pearl Poet: His Complete Works. 1864; rev. 1969. Ed. M. Williams. New York, 1967.

Murtaugh, D. M. “Pearl 462: [th]e mayster of myste.” Neophilologus 55 (1971).

Neilson, G. “Crosslinks Between Pearl and the Awntyrs.” Scottish Antiquary 16 (1902).

Nolan, B., and D. Farley-Hills. “The Authorship of Pearl: Two Notes.” RES n.s. 22 (1971).

Northrup, C. S. “The Metrical Structure of Pearl.” PMLA 12 (1897).

Olmert, Michael. “Game-Playing, Moral Purpose, and the Structure of Pearl.” The Chaucer Review 21.3 (1987): 383-403.

O’Mara, Philip F. “Holcot and the Pearl-Poet.” The Chaucer Review 27.1 (1992): 97-106.

Payne, Roberta Louise. “The Influence of Dante on Medieval English Dream Visions.” DAI 46.9 (1986): 2688A.

Petroff, Elizabeth. “Landscape in Pearl: The Transformation of Nature.” The Chaucer Review 16.2 (1981): 181-93.

Phillips, Heather. “The Eucharistic Allusions of Pearl.” Mediaeval Studies [Toronto, Canada] 47 (1985): 474-86.

Phillips, Heather. “Medieval Glass-Making Techniques and the Imagery of Glass in Pearl.” Florilegium 6 (1984): 195-215.

Prior, Sandra Pierson. The Fayre Formez of the Pearl Poet. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State UP, 1996.

Prior, Sandra Pierson. The Pearl Poet Revisited. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1994. PR1972 .G353 P75

Prior, Sandra Pierson. “Poet of the Word: Patterns and Images of the Apocalypse in the Works of the Pearl Poet.” DAI 46 (1985): 974-975A.

Ralston, Michael Earl. “A Typology of Guides in Medieval Literature.” DAI 45 (1984): 1111A.

Rastetter, Susan J. “‘Bot Mylde as Maydenes Seme at Mas’: The Feast of All Saints and Pearl.” Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 74.1 (1992): 141-54.

Rathbone, I. E. “New Light on Pearl 690.” Traditio 19 (1963).

Reichardt, Paul F. “Animal Similes in Pearl.” Text and Matter: New Critical Perspectives of the Pearl-Poet. Ed. Robert J. Blanch, Julian N. Wasserman, and Miriam Youngerman Miller. Troy, NY: Whitson, 1991. 17-30. PR2111. T49 1991

Reichardt, Paul F. “Sir Israel Gollancz and the Editorial History of the Pearl Manuscript.” Papers On Language and Literature 31.2 (1995): 145-63.

Revard, C. “A Note on at the first fyne, Pearl 635.” English Language Notes 1 (1964).

Revard, C. “A Note on stonden, Pearl 113.” Notes & Queries Jan. (1962).

Rhodes, Jim. “The Dreamer Redeemed: Exile and the Kingdom in the Middle English Pearl.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer: The Yearbook of the New Chaucer Society 16 (1994): 119-42.

Richardson, F. E. “The Pearl: A Poem and Its Audience.” Neophilologus 46 (1962).

Robertson, D. W. “The Pearl as Symbol.” MLN 65 (1950).

Roper, Gregory Lee. “Pearl, Penitence, and the Recovery of the Self.” The Chaucer Review 28.2 (1993): 164-86.

Roper, Gregory Lee. “Reforming the Self: Lyric ‘I’ and Penitential Self in the Middle English Religious Lyrics and Pearl.” Diss. U of Virginia, 1993. DAI 53 (1993): 3226A.

Rostvig, M. S. “Numerical Composition in Pearl.” English Studies 48 (1967).

Ruffolo, Lara. “Unison and Cacophony: Reflections on Skepticism in Fourteenth-Century English Poetry.” Diss. U of California, 1993. DAI 53 (1993): 2364A.

Rupp, H. R. “Word-Play 277-8.” MLN 70 (1955).

Schless, Howard H. “Pearl’s ‘Princes Paye’ and the Law.” The Chaucer Review 24.2 (1989): 183-185.

Schotter, Anne Howland. “Vernacular Style and the Word of God: The Incarnational Art of Pearl.” Ineffability: Naming the Unnamable from Dante to Beckett. Ed. Peter S. Hawkins and Anne Howland Schotter. New York: AMS, 1984. 23-34.

Schofield, W. H. “The Nature and Fabric of the Pearl.” PMLA 19 (1904).

Schofield, W. H. “Symbolism, Allegory, and Autobiography in the Pearl.” PMLA 24 (1909).

Serjeantson, M. S. “The Dialects of the West Midlands in Middle English.” RES 3 (1927).

Simons, John, ed. From Medieval to Medievalism. New York: St. Martin’s, 1992.

Sledd, J. “Three Textual Notes [604].” MLN 55 (1940).

Spearing, A. C. The Gawain-Poet. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1970.

Spearing, A. C. “Symbolic and Dramatic Development in Pearl.” Modern Philology 60 (1963).

Staley, Lynn. The Voice of the Gawain-Poet. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1984. PR1972 .G353 J64 1984

Stanbury, Sarah. “Feminist Masterplots: The Gaze on the Body of Pearl’s Dead Girl.” Feminist Approaches to the Body in Medieval Literature. Ed. Linda Lomperis and Sarah Stanbury. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1993. 96-115.

Stanbury, Sarah. Seeing the Gawain-Poet: Description of the Act of Perception. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1991. PR1972. G353 S7 1991

Stanbury, Sarah. “Visions of Space: Acts of Perception in Pearl and Some Late Medieval Illustrated Apocalypses.” Mediaevalia 10 (1988): 133-58.

Stanley, E. G. “Pearl 358, And thy lurez of lystfly leme: Metanalysed Tmesis for the Sake of Alliteration.” Notes & Queries 37 (1990): 158-60.

Stephens, John. “Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Elaboration, and Middle English Poetic Style.” Parergon 6A (1988): 23-35.

Stern, M. R. “An Approach to the Pearl.” JEGP 54 (1955).

Stiller, Nikki. “The Transformation of the Physical in the Middle English Pearl.” English Studies 63.5 (1982): 402-9.

Stokes, Myra, ed. Medieval Literature and Antiquities. Cambridge, Eng.: Brewer, 1987.

Thomas, P. G. “Notes on the Pearl.” London Mediaeval Studies 1 (1938).

Thorpe, Douglas. A New Earth: The Labor of Language in Pearl, Herbert’s Temple, and Blake’s Jerusalem. Washington, D.C.: Catholic U of America P, 1991.

Tolkien, J. R. R., tr. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. PR1203.G38 1975

Tomasch, Sylvia. “A Pearl Punnology.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 88.1 (1989): 1-20.

Tomasch, Sylvia. “The Unwritten Dispositio: Principles of Order and the Structures of Late Middle English Literature.” DAI 46.2 (1985): 420A.

Tuttle, E. H. “Notes on the Pearl.” MLR 15 (1920).

Vantuono, William. “John de Mascy of Sale and the Pearl Poems.” Manuscripta 25.2 (1981): 77-88.

Vantuono, William, trans. Pearl: An Edition with Verse Translation. Notre Dame, IN: U of Notre Dame P, 1995. PR2111.A28 1995

Vantuono, William, ed. and trans. The Pearl Poem in Middle and Modern English. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1987.

Vantuono, William, ed. The Pearl Poems: An Omnibus Edition, I: Pearl and Cleanness; II: Patience and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York: Garland, 1984. PR1972.G35 1984

Vantuono, William. “Translating Middle English Pearl.” College English Notes 11.4 (1985): 3-4.

Vasta, Edward. “Pearl: Immortal Flowers and the Pearl’s Decay.” JEGP 66 (1967).

Visser, F. M. “Pearl 609-11.” English Studies 39 (1958).

Watts, Ann Chalmers. “Pearl, Inexpressibility and Poems of Human Loss.” PMLA 99 (1984): 26-40.

Watts, V. E. “Pearl as a Consolatio.” Medium Ævum 32 (1963).

Whitaker, Muriel A. “Pearl and Some Illustrated Apocalypse Manuscripts.” Viator 12 (1981): 183-96.

Wilson, E. “The gostly drem in Pearl.” Neuphilologische 69 (1968).

Wilson, E. “Gomylyoun (Gromwell) in Pearl.” Notes & Queries Feb. (1971).

Wilson, E. “Word Play and the Interpretation of Pearl.” Medium Ævum 40 (1971).

Wintermute, E. “The Pearl’s Author as Herbalist.” MLN 64 (1949).

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